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Landmine Monitor
 
Table of Contents
Country Reports
Support_for_Mine_Action.html

Support for Mine Action

S6.tif
© Loren Persi Vicentic/Monitor, 14 May 2011
Using sign language interpretation, Ethiopian women with disabilities discuss the challenges in finding accessible transportation.

Article 6 of the Mine Ban Treaty on international cooperation and assistance recognizes the right of each State Party to seek and receive assistance from other States Parties in fulfilling its treaty obligations. The Monitor reports annually on support for mine action by affected countries and on international mine action assistance reported by donor states. The Monitor relies in most cases on responses to requests for information sent to donors and affected states.

Key Developments in 2010

Donors and affected states contributed approximately US$637 million in international and national support for mine action in 2010,[1] similar to the total recorded contribution in 2009. In addition, assessments from the UN General Assembly for mine action operations within peacekeeping operations provided $81 million in 2010, 17% more than in 2009.

International contributions

In 2010, 31 donors contributed $480 million in international support for mine action in 57 affected states and areas, an increase of $34 million (8%) from 2009. This is the largest annual amount of donor contributions recorded by the Monitor and the fifth consecutive year that international contributions totaled over $400 million per year.[2]

Three donors—the United States (US), Norway, and Canada—reported significant increases, contributing a total of $37 million more than in 2009.

Contributions from the top five mine action donors—the US, European Commission (EC), Japan, Norway, and Canada—accounted for 64% of all donor funding, compared to contributions from the top five donors making up 61% of the total contribution in 2009.

The top six recipient states—Afghanistan, Angola, Iraq, Sudan, Sri Lanka, and Cambodia—received 55% of all international mine action contributions in 2010, as in 2009.

In 2010, 34 recipient states and areas were affected by a fluctuation of 15% or more in funding received; 21 states and areas received at least 15% more funding than in 2009, while 13 states and areas received at least 15% less. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was the recipient with the largest upward fluctuation, receiving over 270% ($9.7 million) more in 2010 than in 2009. Myanmar was the recipient with the largest downward fluctuation, receiving 95% ($0.7 million) less than in 2009.

The majority of funding was provided for activities in the following sectors: clearance and risk education (which received 85% of all funding), victim assistance (9%), and advocacy (2%).

Of the total $480 million in mine action support, $20 million went towards cluster munition specific activities.

UNDP played a major role in delivery of mine action funding, with donors allocating $63 million, or 13% of all mine action contributions in 2010, through UNDP.

Of the total contribution towards victim assistance activities 31% was provided via the ICRC and national Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

National contributions

Twenty-four affected states provided $157 million in national support for mine action towards their own mine action programs, a decrease of $7 million (4%) from 2009, with lower contributions from Croatia and Angola accounting for most of the decrease.

International Contributions

International contributions for mine action in 2010 totaled over $400 million for a fifth consecutive year.

In 2010, 31 donors reported contributing $480 million in international support for mine action. This represents an increase of $34 million (8%) from the $446 million in international contributions reported in 2009. This is the largest annual amount of donor contributions recorded by the Monitor and the fifth consecutive year that international contributions totaled over $400 million per year. The majority went towards 57 states and areas while $40 million was not earmarked for a specific country.

International support for mine action by year

Support_chart_01.eps

Donors

As in 2009, the US was the top mine action donor, with a contribution more than double the size of that of the next largest donor, Norway. The remaining top donors were the EC, Japan, and Canada. The top donor states were the same as in 2009 with the exception of Canada, which replaced Germany in the top five.

In 2010, the top five donors provided 64% of all international funding, a slight increase from 2009, when contributions from the top five donors made up 61% of the total contribution. Donors such as Canada have expressed concern at the trend, noting that a small number of donors are increasingly providing “the lion’s share of support.”[3]

New international donors reporting contributions in 2010 included NATO through Partnership for Peace (PfP) Trust Funds and Cyprus.

Contributions by donor: 2006–2010[4]

Donor

Contribution ($ million)

Total

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

US

129.6

118.7

85.0

69.8

94.5

497.6

Norway

50.3

35.7

36.7

50.2

34.9

207.8

EC

49.8

48.1

22.8

45.7

87.3

253.7

Japan

46.8

48.0

51.4

35.5

25.3

207.0

Canada

30.1

18.8

43.2

45.8

28.9

166.8

Australia

24.4

19.4

18.2

16.7

16.5

95.2

Germany

23.4

23.7

26.7

18.4

18.6

110.8

Netherlands

22.8

18.4

28.3

23.5

26.9

119.9

United Kingdom (UK)

16.3

17.9

24.9

25.2

19.4

103.7

Switzerland

15.7

15.0

15.1

12.0

14.0

71.8

Sweden

13.0

14.9

18.9

17.5

14.9

79.2

Belgium

11.9

10.4

10.5

10.8

7.0

50.6

Denmark

10.2

11.2

14.7

12.1

14.5

62.7

Finland

6.7

6.9

7.4

4.9

6.3

32.2

Spain

5.4

14.6

15.6

11.8

8.5

55.9

Ireland

4.5

5.2

7.2

4.9

4.8

26.6

10 other donors*

4.5

5.5

4.3

13.9

27.1

55.3

Italy

4.0

3.9

10.2

3.5

5.4

27.0

France

3.6

4.5

3.9

7.0

3.3

22.3

New Zealand

3.3

2.2

2.7

0.0

0.8

9.0

Czech Republic

2.2

1.3

1.2

0.0

3.3

8.0

Austria

1.9

2.1

2.7

2.0

2.2

10.9

Total

480.4

446.4

451.6

431.2

464.4

2,274

* The 10 other donors in 2010 include Andorra, Cyprus, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Slovenia, UNDP, NATO/NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency, Qatar, and South Korea.

The five donors with the largest increases in dollar terms in 2010 were Norway, Canada, the US, Australia, and the Netherlands; each increased their contribution by over $4 million. Compared to 2009 contributions, Canada increased its contribution by 60%, Norway by 41%, Australia by 26%, the Netherlands by 24%, and the US by 9%.

Donors with the largest increases in contributions from 2009 to 2010

Donor

Amount of
increase
($ million)

Contribution ($ million)

% change (+)

2010

2009

Norway

14.6

50.3

35.7

41

Canada

11.3

30.1

18.8

60

US

10.9

129.6

118.7

9

Australia

5.0

24.4

19.4

26

Netherlands

4.4

22.8

18.4

24

Although 10 countries reported smaller contributions in 2010 than in 2009, the size of the decreases were not substantial and fell within the narrow range of $110,000 to $1.6 million, with the exception of Spain which contributed $9.2 million less than in 2010, a decrease of 63%.

Funding paths

Donors provided funding via several trust fund mechanisms, including: the UN Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Action (UNVTF) administered by the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS); the Cluster Munition Trust Fund for Lao PDR administered by UNDP; the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (ITF) established by the government of Slovenia; and several NATO PfP Trust Funds.

Donors provided $63 million, or 13% of all contributions, through UNDP. Other organizations that received a significant proportion of contributions in 2010 included the ICRC ($13.6 million) and the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) ($12.3 million).

GICHD study on mine action funding[13]

Donor strategies are sometimes difficult to determine based solely on the amount of their annual contributions. A study commissioned by the GICHD in May 2010 examined factors that mine action donors consider when allocating funding to mine-affected countries. The GICHD found, based on responses from 18 donors, that policy and funding strategies are based more on measuring socio-economic impact and the reintegration of refugees and internally displaced persons than on an emphasis to meet the goal of a mine-free world. The majority of donors surveyed viewed mine action as a subset of development cooperation. But the study noted that donor capacities have been weakened in recent years as fewer personnel at the donor level are directly involved in mine action. The result has been less focus and limited oversight capacity; limited capacity for essential tasks such as evaluation and monitoring, project assessment, field visits, and contacts with national mine action authorities; and loss of institutional memory and in-house expertise.

Recipients

A total of 57 states and areas received $440 million from 31 donors in 2010. A further $40 million, designated as “global” in the table below, was provided to institutions, NGOs, trust funds, and UN agencies without a designated recipient state or area.

The top six recipient states—Afghanistan, Angola, Iraq, Sudan, Sri Lanka, and Cambodia—received 55% of all international mine action contributions in 2010, as in 2009.

Seven recipients that did not receive support in 2009 received support in 2010—Algeria, Benin, Egypt, Falkland Islands/Malvinas, Liberia, Moldova, and Sierra Leone—compared to 13 new recipients in 2009. The new recipient that received the largest contribution in 2010 was the Falkland Islands/Malvinas, which received £1.1 million ($1.7 million) from the UK for mine clearance.

In 2010, 34 states and areas experienced a change of 15% or more in funding compared to 2009.[5] Although support to mine action has been stable since 2005 and increased by over $30 million in 2010, the large number of recipients affected by a significant fluctuation may indicate that annual shifts in donor priorities and changes in local situations affect the number of proposals received and approved from individual mine-affected countries.

International contributions by recipient: 2010*

Recipient

Contribution ($ million)

Total

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

Afghanistan

102.6

106.6

105.1

86.3

87.5

488.1

Angola

45.7

18.8

22.1

19.8

48.1

154.5

Iraq

37.2

34.7

35.9

37.3

35.3

180.4

Sudan

27.0

23.0

39.1

29.2

28.9

147.2

Sri Lanka

26.3

24.8

8.2

7.6

9.9

76.8

Cambodia

24.3

33.3

28.1

30.8

29.6

146.1

Lebanon

20.9

21.2

27.8

28.3

68.8

167.0

Lao PDR

20.8

11.0

12.7

12.2

13.3

70.0

DRC

13.2

3.6

12.4

5.9

5.1

40.2

Colombia

12.1

10.5

9.1

8.8

4.3

44.8

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH)

11.8

18.5

24.6

17.1

15.4

87.4

Mozambique

11.5

6.5

3.2

3.5

6.2

30.9

Ethiopia

10.8

7.6

9.5

7.1

7.9

42.9

Jordan

8.1

6.4

7.1

5.7

5.6

32.9

Vietnam

7.1

4.2

7.6

3.9

8.3

31.1

Tajikistan

6.5

3.5

1.9

1.3

1.1

14.3

Croatia

5.4

4.6

6.6

8.8

8.9

34.3

Somaliland

5.2

3.0

3.8

1.9

2.9

16.8

Somalia

4.0

2.6

0.8

3.2

1.8

12.4

Georgia

3.6

2.1

8.7

0.0

0.0

14.4

Pakistan

3.4

1.8

0.0

0.0

0.0

5.2

Serbia

3.1

1.4

2.8

2.7

2.6

12.6

Peru

2.5

2.7

1.3

0.3

1.6

8.4

Occupied Palestinian Territories

(OPT)

2.2

1.7

5.1

0.0

0.0

9.0

Azerbaijan

2.2

2.2

1.7

3.7

4.5

14.3

Chad

1.7

7.1

2.1

0.7

2.4

14.0

Guinea-Bissau

1.7

2.1

1.7

1.9

0.9

8.3

Nagorno-Karabakh

1.7

2.2

2.7

1.9

1.2

9.7

Uganda

1.7

0.6

0.8

1.8

1.7

6.6

Falkland Islands/Malvinas

1.7

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.7

Yemen

1.5

1.0

1.0

1.1

4.1

8.7

Kosovo

1.4

1.6

2.0

0.5

2.0

7.5

Ecuador

1.2

0.5

0.7

0.2

1.0

3.6

Eritrea

1.2

0.4

0.3

0.0

0.0

1.9

Western Sahara

1.1

1.2

0.3

0.9

0.0

3.5

Belarus

0.9

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.9

Nepal

0.9

0.8

1.1

1.8

0.2

4.8

Senegal

0.9

0.3

0.7

4.6

0.9

7.4

Abkhazia

0.9

1.3

0.7

1.8

3.1

7.8

Egypt

0.7

0.0

0.9

1.2

0.0

2.8

Benin

0.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.6

Nicaragua

0.4

2.0

3.3

4.5

5.5

15.7

Zambia

0.3

0.3

0.0

0.5

0.5

1.6

Sierra Leone

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

Algeria

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

Liberia

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

Palau

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

Mauritania

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.2

1.6

Burundi

0.2

0.3

1.1

1.1

3.0

5.7

Albania

0.2

2.2

5.7

1.2

2.3

11.6

Montenegro

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

Moldova

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

FYR Macedonia

0.1

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

Niger

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

Thailand

0.1

0.1

0.0

1.6

0.8

2.6

Ukraine

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

Myanmar

0.1

0.8

1.0

0.2

0.0

2.1

Global**

40.1

64.5

39.9

77.8

37.0

259.3

Total

480.4

446.4

451.6

431.2

464.4

2,274

Note: Other areas are indicated by italics.

* The amount for each donor has been rounded to the nearest hundred thousand, for contributions over $1 million, and to the nearest ten thousand for contributions under $1 million. Source information can be found in the respective Country Profiles at www.the-monitor.org.
** Global refers to funds from donors which were not earmarked for use within a designated recipient state or area and were allocated to institutions, NGOs, trust funds, the UN, ICRC or GICHD. Most advocacy funding is contained within this category of funding.

Twenty-one recipients received at least 15% more international mine action funding than in 2009.

Recipients receiving at least 15% more support in 2010

Recipient

% change
(-)

Amount of increase
($ million)

DRC

271

9.7

Eritrea

266

0.9

Uganda

201

1.2

Senegal

144

0.5

Angola

142

26.8

Ecuador

133

0.7

Serbia

126

1.7

Lao PDR

89

9.8

Tajikistan

86

3.0

Pakistan

82

1.5

Mozambique

78

5.0

Somaliland

74

2.2

Vietnam

70

2.9

Georgia

68

1.4

Somalia

56

1.4

Yemen

48

0.5

Ethiopia

42

3.2

OPT

32

0.5

Jordan

25

1.6

Croatia

18

0.8

Colombia

15

1.6

Thirteen recipients received at least 15% less funding in 2010.

Recipients receiving at least 15% less support in 2010

Recipient

% change
(-)

Amount of increase
($ million)

Myanmar

95

0.7

Albania

92

2.0

Niger

88

0.9

Nicaragua

80

1.6

Chad

76

5.4

Mauritania

51

0.2

BiH

36

6.7

Abkhazia

36

0.5

Burundi

35

0.1

Cambodia

27

9.0

Nagorno-Karabakh

21

0.44

Guinea-Bissau

20

0.41

Kosovo

15

0.25

Funding by Thematic Sector

 

Contributions by thematic sector: 2010

Sector

Total contribution ($ million)

Percentage

Clearance/RE

408.7

85.07

Victim Assistance

43.6

9.08

Various

16.0

3.33

Advocacy

11.0

2.29

Stockpile destruction

1.1

0.23

Contributions by donor and thematic sector: 2010

Donor

Total contribution
$ million)

Clearance/risk education (%)

Victim assistance (%)

Advocacy (%)

Stockpile destruction (%)

Various (%)

US

129.6

88

12

0

0

0

Norway

50.3

70

11

12

0

7

EC

49.8

99

0

0

1

0

Japan

46.8

98

2

0

0

0

Canada

30.1

96

0

4

0

0

Australia

24.4

79

14

5

0

2

Germany

23.4

94

4

2

0

0

Netherlands

22.8

93

3

0

0

4

UK

16.3

98

0

2

0

0

Switzerland

15.7

22

16

6

0

56

Sweden

13.0

86

0

3

0

11

Belgium

11.9

65

34

1

0

0

Denmark

10.2

80

9

2

0

9

Finland

6.7

80

9

0

0

11

Spain

5.4

85

12

2

0

1

Ireland

4.5

70

0

14

16

0

10 other donors*

4.5

72

14

1

0

13

Italy

4.0

89

1

6

0

4

France

3.6

29

57

5

0

9

New Zealand

3.3

23

54

1

0

22

Czech Republic

2.2

100

0

0

0

0

Austria

1.9

73

14

13

0

0

 Total

480.4

 

 

 

 

 

Mine clearance and risk education

In 2010, 85% of all reported support for mine action went toward clearance/risk education (RE) activities ($408.6 million).

Of the 31 donors reporting international contributions to mine action in 2010, 25 reported contributions for clearance/RE in 50 states and areas, with six of the ten largest donors allocating at least 93% of their support to clearance and RE.

Most donors reported clearance and RE as a combined figure, although clearance accounts for most of the reported funding. Twelve donors reported contributions totaling $10.3 million specifically for 27 RE projects in 14 countries, though RE programs are implemented in all 72 mine-affected countries and seven areas. The EC reported funding three RE projects in Sudan and Pakistan, providing the largest RE contribution, €1.95 million ($2.6 million). Pakistan received the most RE funding with $3.4 million.

Victim assistance

In 2010, 9% of all reported support for mine action in 2010 went towards victim assistance (VA) activities ($43.6 million).

Of the 31 donors reporting international contributions to mine action in 2010, 21 reported supporting VA activities in 31 states and areas. In 2010, 73% of all reported VA funding was provided by the top four VA donors: the US ($15 million), Norway (NOK55.5 million/$9.2 million), Belgium (€3 million/$4 million) and Australia (A$3.7 million/$3.4 million). The top two VA donors, the US and Norway, provided 56% of all VA funding in 2010.

The US contribution of $15.3 million represents a 33% increase from 2009. In 2010 the US Agency for International Development (USAID) Patrick Leahy War Victims Fund provided $8.4 million to projects in Cambodia, Colombia, Ethiopia, Lao PDR, Lebanon, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, the International Society of Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the US-based NGO, Motivation, while the remainder of the US contributions towards VA activities was allocated by the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement.

Norway contributed $9.2 million towards the ICRC and VA activities in Afghanistan, Cambodia, Colombia, Iraq, Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Lebanon—an increase of 30% from 2009.

The remainder of the VA funding was allocated for small projects through international NGOs such as Handicap International, CARE, World Vision, World Rehabilitation Fund, Clear Path International, and the POLUS Center. Unlike mine clearance funding, donors did not fund victim assistance through the UN Mine Action Team. Six donors reported no funding for victim assistance: Canada, Czech Republic, EC, Ireland, Sweden, and the UK.

Although there was a $5.6 million increase in VA contributions in 2010 there were four fewer donors, as well as fewer donors contributing a significant amount of their contribution towards victim assistance activities. For example, in 2010 three donors (France, Belgium, and New Zealand) allocated at least 20% of their funding to victim assistance compared to seven donors (Australia, Austria, Belgium, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, and Spain) in 2009.

The majority of all VA funding assists persons with disabilities generally—and is not specifically provided for mine, explosive remnants of war, or cluster munition survivors—and most of the victim assistance support is provided at the local level through a wide range of government ministries and agencies, NGOs, social service agencies, and advocacy groups.

Australia, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Japan, Liechtenstein, New Zealand, Norway, and the US reported $16 million, just over one-third of all VA funding, in support to the ICRC or to national Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. This funding included CHF4,546,110 ($4.4 million) in contributions from five donors (Australia, Austria, Liechtenstein, Norway, and the USAID Patrick Leahy War Victims Fund) to support the ICRC Special Fund for the Disabled (SFD) and its 64 projects in 32 countries in 2010.[6]

Advocacy

In 2010, 2% of all reported support for mine action in 2010 went towards advocacy activities ($11 million).

Of the 31 donors reporting international contributions to mine action in 2010, 16 reported supporting advocacy activities.

Austria, Ireland, Italy, and Norway allocated over 10% of their support towards advocacy activities, including: support for the Tenth Meeting of States Parties for the Mine Ban Treaty in Geneva and the First Meeting of States Parties to the Convention for Cluster Munitions in Vientiane, Lao PDR; government travel sponsorship through UNDP; and the sponsorship program of the Mine Ban Treaty Implementation Support Unit. The CMC, the ICBL, GICHD, Geneva Call, and the Monitor also received donor support for advocacy.

Of the $11 million for advocacy activities, donors reported $3.3 million was specifically for mine ban advocacy, $3.2 million was specifically for cluster munition ban advocacy, and the remainder ($4.5 million) was for unspecified advocacy activities.

National Contributions

Since 2008, 27 affected states have reported contributions to domestic mine action programs. In 2010, 24 states reported $157 million in government financial support.[7] Croatia, Angola, Colombia, and BiH accounted for 70% of all reported national contributions.

Chile, Denmark, and Venezuela are the only mine-affected countries that receive all of their mine action funding from national sources. The mine action programs in Azerbaijan and Croatia receive over 80% of their funding from national sources.

Three-year summary of national contributions

Year

No. of states reporting contributions

National contributions
($ million)

2010

24

157

2009

26

164

2008

27

160

Other Funding Paths

The $480 million in support to mine action in 2010 represents reported government contributions under bilateral and international programs and in accordance with international treaty obligations. It does not represent the complete expenditures for field operations. Other funding sources include foundations, private fundraising by NGOs, and mine action allocations in countries with peacekeeping operations.

Sixteen governments contributed $63 million to the UNVTF, compared to 24 donors and $91 million in 2009 and 19 donors and $93 million in 2008. The donors with the largest contributions to the UNVTF in 2010 were Canada, Japan, and the Netherlands. Several small donors used the UNVTF to contribute to mine action, including: Andorra, Estonia, South Korea, Liechtenstein, and Luxembourg.[8]

Donors allocated $28 million in contributions in 2010 through the ITF[9] and $4 million to the Organization of American States (OAS) [10] for mine action programs in Latin America. The OAS received $2.9 million less in 2010 compared to 2009, a decrease of 42%, largely because Nicaragua required less fu nding after it completed clearance of its mined areas in April 2010.[11]

Twelve governments reported contributing $12 million to GICHD in 2010, with Switzerland providing 72% of this total.[12]

Of the $480 million donors reported contributing in 2010 for mine action, $63 million went through UNDP’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery for Angola, BiH, Cambodia, Chad, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Jordan, Lao PDR, Lebanon, Mauritania, Mozambique, Senegal, Somaliland, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, and Yemen.[14] The UNMAS Voluntary Trust Fund provided another $141,057 to UNDP for Lao PDR[15] and funding reported by UNICEF for RE projects in Cambodia, Colombia, DRC, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Lao PDR, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, and Yemen.[16]

Peacekeeping operations

Peacekeeping operations in Chad, the DRC, Lebanon, Somalia, Sudan, and Western Sahara have mine action programs that are partially funded by appropriations assessments by the UN General Assembly as part of its peacekeeping mission budgets.

Peacekeeping assessed funds for mine action[17]

Country/area

Name

Assessed funds for mine action ($)

Sudan

United Nations Mission in

Sudan (UNMIS)

44,865,600

Somalia

Support Office for the African Union Mission in Somalia

13,987,149

Sudan

African Union /UN Hybrid

operation in Darfur (UNAMID)

9,855,600

DRC

UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the DRC (MONUSCO)

4,860,688

Chad

UN Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad

4,323,260

Lebanon

UN Interim Force in Lebanon

1,782,350

Western

Sahara

UN Mission for the organization of a Referendum in Western Sahara

914,750

 

Total

80,589,397

The peacekeeping appropriation increased by 17% in 2010.[18] Approximately $54 million in 2010 was allocated to the UNAMID and UNMIS missions.


[1] This figure represents reported government contributions under bilateral and international programs and in accordance with international treaty obligations. For more information on funding contributed via other mechanisms see “Other Funding Paths” section below.

[2] Average exchange rate for 2010: €1=US$1.3261. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 6 January 2011. Average exchange rates for 2010: ¥1=US$0.01139; A$1=US$0.91999; CHF1=US$0.95858. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),”6 January 2011.

[3] Statement of Canada, Tenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 30 November 2010.

[4] The amount for each donor has been rounded to the nearest hundred thousand. Source information can be found in the respective Country Profiles at www.the-monitor.org.

[5] Tajikistan was the only recipient to receive a 15% increase in both 2009 and 2010. No country received a decrease of 15% or more in both years.

[6] ICRC SFD, “Annual Report 2010,” p. 52, www.icrc.org. Donors reported to the Monitor $3.3 million in contributions to the ICRC SFD.

[7] They are: Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Azerbaijan, BiH, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Denmark, Ecuador, Eritrea, Jordan, Lebanon, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Peru, Senegal, Sudan, Tajikistan, Uganda, Yemen, and Zimbabwe.

[8] UNMAS, “2010 Annual Report,” New York, September 2011, p. 79, www.mineaction.org.

[9] ITF, “Donors: Donations Overview: All, 2010,” www.itf-fund.si; and ITF, “Annual Report 2010,” www.itf-fund.si.

[10] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Carl Case, Program Director, AICMA, OAS, 19 May 2011.

[11] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Carl Case, OAS, 19 May 2011.

[12] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Claudia Moser, Section for Multilateral Peace Policy, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Switzerland, 31 May 2011.

[13] Jean Devlin, “Mine Action Funding: Trends, Modalities and Future Prospects,” GICHD, November 2010.

[14] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Christine Pahlman, Mine Action Coordinator, AusAID, 11 July 2011; Alma Ni Choigligh, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Section, Department of Foreign Affairs, Ireland, 31 March 2011; Lt.-Col. Klaus Koppetsch, Desk Officer Mine Action, German Federal Foreign Office, 18 April 2011; Claudia Moser, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Switzerland, 31 May 2011; Ingunn Vatne, Senior Advisor, Department for Human Rights, Democracy and Humanitarian Assistance, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 27 April 2011; Chisa Takiguchi, Official, Conventional Arms Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan, 27 April 2011; Manfredo Capozza, Humanitarian Demining Advisor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Italy, 6 April 2011; Belgium Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2011; Belgium Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form I, 27 January 2011; Canada Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2011; information provided by Maria Cruz Cristobal, Mine Action Desk, Security Policy Unit, Directorate-General for External Relations, EC, through David Spence, Minister Counselor, Delegation of the European Union to the UN in Geneva, 20 June 2011; email from Sandrine Petroni, EC, 30 June 2011; and US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety 2011,” Washington, DC, July 2011.

[15] Email from Eugen Secareanu, Project Officer, UNMAS, 15 September 2011.

[16] UNICEF, www.unicef.org; and UN, “2011 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York.

[17] UNMAS, “2010 Annual Report,” New York, September 2011, pp. 35–45.

[18] UNMAS, “2010 Annual Report,” New York, September 2011, p. 21.